A.Bukeyhanov-leader of Alash movement, famous intellectual of the XX century.

Alikhan Nurmuhamedovich Bukeikhanov - a prominent public figure and statesman, an organizer and leader of the National Democratic Party "Alash", the head of the first Kazakh national government Alashorda, a scientist, a talented writer. Alikhan Bukeikhanov his entire adult life to the struggle for freedom and political independence of the Kazakh people.

Bukeikhanov Alikhan was born March 5, 1866 in the village №7 Tokraunskoy parish Karkarala district of Semipalatinsk region (nowadays territory of Aktogay area of ​​Karaganda region).

Mukan Father gives a boy of nine to study in male Karkaralinsk school. Being dissatisfied with the quality of knowledge, Alikhan willfully goes into the initial three-cabin city's Russian-Kazakh school. Since childhood Bukeikhanov was well acquainted with the works of Abay and Shortambaya, I knew the history and geography of his native land. At that time he was not hearsay familiar with Russian and world culture.

In the years 1886-1890 he studied at the Omsk Technical School. 1890-1894 years of study at the economic faculty of the St. Petersburg Imperial Forestry Institute. Successfully graduated from the Institute as a forest economist, Alikhan Bukeikhanov taught mathematics at the agricultural college of Omsk. Then he served as an officer of the Omsk Resettlement Department, up until 1905.

In 1893, he actively participates in the political, economic, literary and other circles involved in the student "riots." According to archive documents, in these years Bukeikhanov activity for the first time attracted the attention of the Department of the tsarist police, his name is found in the black list of "politically unreliable." During this period it is particularly evident talent as a public, political figure, pushing it as a true leader of the national movement in all of the Steppe region.

The revival of political life in Kazakhstan, which began in 1905, was due to the first revolution in Russia. Resurgent identity of the Kazakh people, his desire to break out of the framework of the Russian Empire colonies expressed in the petition if the shares in which were expressed the main political and socio-economic demands of the Kazakhs. The most famous was the petition of 1905, signed at the fair Koyandy 14.5 thousand. Residents Karkarala district of Semipalatinsk region. It made Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Ahmet Baitursynov, Zhakyp Akbayev, Mirzhakyp Dulatov, Mohammed Maksut Bekmetov. The main requirements were limited to the recognition of Kazakh ownership of the land where they lived; mandatory introduction in schools, along with Russian, Kazakh language learning; execution of Muslim rites in accordance with the Muslim faith; the introduction of the proceedings in the Kazakh language, and others.

Alikhan Bukeikhanov is actively involved in a number of public organizations. For example, he was an active member of Semipalatinsk section of the West-Siberian department of the Russian Geographical Society and the Semipalatinsk Statistical Committee.

In 1905 Bukeikhanov was elected in the I State Duma (Russian empire) in the Semipalatinsk district, he participated in the drafting of a document called the Vyborg manifesto condemning the dissolution of the Tsarist Duma. It is from this document begins active political activity Alikhan Bukeikhanov. Russian newspapers appearing his articles criticizing the colonial policy of the tsarist autocracy and bureaucratic activities of the local rulers in the region. For the awakening of national consciousness of the Kazakhs and the organization of their educational activities was the publication of the newspaper "Kazakh", the first truly national periodicals in the history of the Kazakhs. Active participation in the creation of the newspaper Heads of the Kazakh national movement Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Ahmet Baitursynov and Mirzhakyp Dulatov. Bukeikhanov writes his articles under the pseudonym "the son of the steppes."

He participated in various meetings with a view to the organization of the Kazakh branch of the Cadet Party. After the February Revolution, Bukeikhanov took an active part in the national liberation struggle of the Kazakh people. After two vsekazahstanskih congresses, held in July and December 1917, managed to create a party "Alash" and Alashorda government Bukeikhanov elected its chairman. Party name was suggested by the delegate of the Ural region Zhanshoy Dosmukhamedov lawyer and all supported. The newspaper "Kazakh" became the organ of the party. This was a truly historic event because for the first time became a reality Kazakh establishment of a unified state.

During the Civil War Bukeikhanov did his best to protect his people from this fratricidal slaughter. With the arrival of Soviet power, he is prevented from political activity and withdraw permanent residence in Moscow, where Bukeikhanov spent the last 15 years of his life. During this period he continued to engage in literature and research activities. Carefully collect samples of oral creativity, folklore heritage, etc.

30. A.Baytursynov as a politician and cultural figure.

Akhmet Baitursynov (January 28, 1873 — December 8, 1937) was a Kazakh intellectual who worked in the fields of politic, poetry, linguistics and education.

Baitursynov was born in what is today Kostanay Region, and was educated at the Orenburg Teachers' School. After graduating in 1895, Baitursynov held teaching positions in a number of cities in Kazakhstan, including Aktobe, Kostanay and Karkaralinsk.

The same year as his graduation, Baitursynov published his first article, "Kirgizskie primety i poslovitsy" ("Kazakh Omens and Proverbs") in a regional newspaper. While living in Ural city in 1905, he collaborated with other Kazakhs to form the Kazakh wing of the Constitutional Democrat Party. His involvement in politics probably led to his 1909 arrest and exile from the Steppe regions. After being exiled, he went to Orenburg.

During his exile, he wrote articles for Ay Qap. He also served as the chief editor of Qazaq, the Kazakh newspaper there, and published "Qyryq Mysal" ("Forty Proverbs").[citation needed] His other significant publication of this time was a Kazakh translation of Ivan Krylov's fables. In 1911, Baytursinuli published his first work of a distinctly political nature — Masa ("Mosquito").

When the Russian Revolution of 1917 occurred, Baytursinuli returned to the steppes and began to work with the Alash Orda political party. With them, he fought for the Kazakhs to have an independent state. He began to work with the Bolsheviks in 1920 when they established their dominance over the region. He served as a Member of the Committee of Deputies of the Constituent Assembly and as Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Kazakh Krai, as well as Commissioner of Enlightenment. In these capacities, he helped to reform education and to establish the first university in Kazakhstan.

Another of Baitursynov's significant accomplishments was his adaptation of Arabic script for the Kazakh alphabet.

In 1937, during the Great Purge, Baitursynov was arrested for hiding "bourgeois nationalist sentiments" and summarily executed. This had resulted in an outcry, which was quickly and bloodily silenced. To this day, he is held in great regard in Kazakhstan, but is viewed as somewhat tragic figure, signifying the extent of the numbers of authors, poets and thinkers who have perished due to the Soviet repressions. A museum in honour of Baitursynov was established in one of his former residences in Alma-Ata, and a number of streets were renamed in his memory across Kazakhstan. A statue of the thinker is also to be found in the town of Kostenay.

Baitursynov's work is part of the curriculum for high school education system of Kazakhstan.